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# Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems university paper of year 2002

Posted By: Milind Mishra     Category: Artificial Intelligence     Views: 6153

### Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems university paper of year 2002.

Section I

Q-1 (a) What are the characteristics of an AI technique? Explain this with reference to Tic-Tac-Toe puzzle.
[4]
(b) Describe the problem of state space search. What are the requirements of a good control strategy?
Define production rules for water jug problem corresponding to following operators:[5]                                (a)  Fill     4     litre      Jug completely.
(b) Empty    3    litre     jug  completely
(c) Pour water  from 4 litre  Jug  into 3 litre  jug till 3 litre  jug gets full.

Q-2 Describe the DFS and BFS methods briefly. Show the algorithm of any one of these methods. Consider
the following tree:

Show the  sequence of nodes that will be searched in BFS and  DFS methods starting from the node A.

OR

Q-2 Describe the simple Hill climbing algorithm. Also show how this can be converted into the steepest hill
climbing algorithm. What are the major problems that arise from Hill climbing algorithm and how can
these problems be resolved?

Q-3 What are the characteristics of an expert system? Draw the block diagram of an expert system and
describe each block briefly. Show how does the working of an expert system differ from a traditional
software.

OR

Q-3 Show the similarities and differences between a biological neuron and a perceptron. Show why does a
perceptron fails to solve XOR problem. What con be done to solve this problem?

Section II

Q-4 (a) Consider the following predicates in a PROLOG program.[9]
likes( Parson, Drink)
enjoys (Person, Hobby)
plays (Parson, Instrument)
Assume that  a database for the above predicates are available in the PROLOO program. Use these facts to setup the queries on the following.
i)  Display all those who like Coke.
ii) Is it true that nobody likes milk?
iii) Display those who love coke as well as enjoy playing Cricket as well as Sitar.              .
iv) Who likes to play chess, drink Coke but does not play any instrument.
v)  Does everybody play atleast one instrument?
(b) Write a complete turbo prolog program
i)for shifting a list rotationally by one element to the left. (e.g Shift([ 1,2,3,4,5],L),gives
L = [2, 3, 4, 5,1].
ii) for displaying all the permutations of a given list

Q-5  Consider the following sentences[8]
(i) Sushma likes all kinds of food.
(ii) Pizza is food.
(iii) Anything anyone eats and remains alive by is food
(iv) Ram eats carrots and is still alive.
(v) Laxman eats everything that Ram eats.
(a) Translate these sentences into formulas in predicate logic
(b) Convert the -formulas of part (a)  into Clause form.
(c) Prove that Sushma likes carrots, using Resolution.

OR

Q-5 (a) Explain differences between Monotonic reasoning and nonmonotic reasoning.[8]
(b) Explain how facts are stored and removed from a Dynamic Database of  TURBO PORLOG program.

Q-6 Attempt any two parts:
1)    Write a turbo prolog program to generate  Fibonacci series.