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Program to show the implementation of Window-to-Viewport Transformaton

Posted By: Easy Tutor     Category: C++ Programming     Views: 5159

Write a program to show the implementation of Window-to-Viewport Transformaton.

Code for Program to show the implementation of Window-to-Viewport Transformaton in C++ Programming

 # include <iostream.h>
 # include <graphics.h>
 # include    <conio.h>
 # include     <math.h>

 class PointCoordinates
    {
       public:
      float x;
      float y;

      PointCoordinates( )
         {
        x=0;
        y=0;
         }
    };


 class LineCoordinates
    {
       public:
      float x_1;
      float y_1;
      float x_2;
      float y_2;

      LineCoordinates( )
         {
        x_1=0;
        y_1=0;
        x_2=0;
        y_2=0;
         }

      LineCoordinates(constfloat x1,constfloat y1,
                          constfloat x2,constfloat y2)
         {
        x_1=x1;
        y_1=y1;
        x_2=x2;
        y_2=y2;
         }
    };

 /*************************************************************************///--------------------  RectangularCoordinates  -------------------------///*************************************************************************/class RectangularCoordinates
    {
       public:
      float x_min;
      float y_min;
      float x_max;
      float y_max;

      RectangularCoordinates(constfloat x1,constfloat y1,
                          constfloat x2,constfloat y2)
         {
        x_min=x1;
        y_min=y1;
        x_max=x2;
        y_max=y2;
         }
    };


 void show_screen( );

 void apply_window_to_viewport_coordinate_transformation(
                      const RectangularCoordinates,
                        const RectangularCoordinates,
                                int &,int &);

 void clip_polygon(const RectangularCoordinates,constint,constint []);

 constint check_line(const LineCoordinates,const LineCoordinates);
 constint check_point(const LineCoordinates,constfloat,constfloat);

 const PointCoordinates get_intersection_point(LineCoordinates,
                                LineCoordinates);

 void Polygon(constint,constint []);
 void Rectangle(constint,constint,constint,constint);
 void Line(constint,constint,constint,constint);
 void Dashed_line(constint,constint,constint,constint,constint=0);


 int main( )
    {
       int driver=VGA;
       int mode=VGAHI;

       initgraph(&driver,&mode,"..\\Bgi");

       show_screen( );

       setcolor(15);
     Line(90,150,90,390);
     Line(50,350,320,350);

     Line(400,150,400,390);
     Line(360,350,580,350);

       RectangularCoordinates WC(130,180,290,300);
       RectangularCoordinates VC(440,230,550,300);

       setcolor(15);
     Line(90,180,95,180);
     Line(90,300,95,300);

     Line(130,345,130,350);
     Line(290,345,290,350);

     Line(400,230,405,230);
     Line(400,300,405,300);

     Line(440,345,440,350);
     Line(550,345,550,350);

       setcolor(15);
     Rectangle(WC.x_min,WC.y_min,WC.x_max,WC.y_max);
     Rectangle(VC.x_min,VC.y_min,VC.x_max,VC.y_max);

       int n=8;

       int polygon_vertices[18]={ 60,320 , 320,320 , 250,190 , 235,210 ,
                  230,195 , 215,220 , 200,200 , 60,320 };

       setcolor(7);
     Polygon(n,polygon_vertices);

       setcolor(15);
     settextstyle(0,0,1);
       outtextxy(50,175,"YW");
       outtextxy(50,295,"YW");
       outtextxy(110,360,"XW");
       outtextxy(280,360,"XW");

       outtextxy(360,225,"YV");
       outtextxy(360,295,"YV");
       outtextxy(420,360,"XV");
       outtextxy(530,360,"XV");

       outtextxy(182,170,"Window");
       outtextxy(140,390,"World Coordinates");

       outtextxy(462,220,"Viewport");
       outtextxy(420,390,"Device Coordinates");

     settextstyle(2,0,4);
       outtextxy(67,175,"min");
       outtextxy(67,295,"max");
       outtextxy(127,360,"min");
       outtextxy(297,360,"max");

       outtextxy(377,225,"min");
       outtextxy(377,295,"max");
       outtextxy(437,360,"min");
       outtextxy(547,360,"max");

       char Key=NULL;

       do
      {
         Key=getch( );
      }
       while(Key!='T' && Key!='t');

       settextstyle(0,0,1);
     setcolor(0);
       outtextxy(90,450,"  Press 'T' to see the Window-to-Viewport Transformation.  ");

    setcolor(15);
       outtextxy(85,450,"----------------                          -----------------");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(213,450,"  Press any Key to exit.  ");

       for(int count=0;count<n;count++)
      apply_window_to_viewport_coordinate_transformation(WC,VC,
                       polygon_vertices[(count*2)],
                       polygon_vertices[((count*2)+1)]);

       clip_polygon(VC,n,polygon_vertices);

       getch( );
       return 0;
    }


 /*************************************************************************///------  apply_window_to_viewport_coordinate_transformation( )  --------///*************************************************************************/void apply_window_to_viewport_coordinate_transformation(
                   const RectangularCoordinates wc,
                       const RectangularCoordinates vc,
                                  int &x,int &y)
    {
       float Sx=((vc.x_max-vc.x_min)/(wc.x_max-wc.x_min));
       float Sy=((vc.y_max-vc.y_min)/(wc.y_max-wc.y_min));
       float Tx=vc.x_min;
       float Ty=vc.y_min;

       x=(Tx+(Sx*(x-wc.x_min)));
       y=(Ty+(Sy*(y-wc.y_min)));
    }

 /*************************************************************************///--------------------------  clip_polygon( )  --------------------------///*************************************************************************/void clip_polygon(const RectangularCoordinates wc,constint n,
                           constint polygon_edges[])
    {
       int edges_counter;
       int number_of_edges=n;

       int *edges=newint[(n*4)];
       int *clipped_edges=newint[(n*4)];

       for(int count_1=0;count_1<(n*2);count_1++)
      edges[count_1]=polygon_edges[count_1];

       LineCoordinates window_line;

       for(int count_2=1;count_2<=4;count_2++)
      {
         edges_counter=1;

         for(int count_3=0;count_3<(number_of_edges*4);count_3++)
        clipped_edges[count_3]=0;

         if(count_2==1)
        {
           window_line.x_1=wc.x_min;
           window_line.y_1=wc.y_max;
           window_line.x_2=wc.x_max;
           window_line.y_2=wc.y_max;
        }

         elseif(count_2==2)
        {
           window_line.x_1=wc.x_max;
           window_line.y_1=wc.y_max;
           window_line.x_2=wc.x_max;
           window_line.y_2=wc.y_min;
        }

         elseif(count_2==3)
        {
           window_line.x_1=wc.x_max;
           window_line.y_1=wc.y_min;
           window_line.x_2=wc.x_min;
           window_line.y_2=wc.y_min;
        }

         elseif(count_2==4)
        {
           window_line.x_1=wc.x_min;
           window_line.y_1=wc.y_min;
           window_line.x_2=wc.x_min;
           window_line.y_2=wc.y_max;
        }

         int rule_no;

         PointCoordinates point;

         for(int count_4=1;count_4<number_of_edges;count_4++)
        {
           LineCoordinates line(edges[((count_4*2)-2)],
                    edges[((count_4*2)-1)],
                    edges[(count_4*2)],
                    edges[((count_4*2)+1)]);

           rule_no=check_line(window_line,line);

           switch(rule_no)
              {
             case 1 : clipped_edges[(edges_counter*2)]=
                             (int)(line.x_2+0.5);
                  clipped_edges[((edges_counter*2)+1)]=
                             (int)(line.y_2+0.5);
                  edges_counter++;
                  break;

             case 2 : break;

             case 3 : point=
                    get_intersection_point(window_line,line);

                  clipped_edges[(edges_counter*2)]=
                              (int)(point.x+0.5);
                  clipped_edges[((edges_counter*2)+1)]=
                              (int)(point.y+0.5);
                  edges_counter++;
                  break;

             case 4 : point=
                    get_intersection_point(window_line,line);

                  clipped_edges[(edges_counter*2)]=
                              (int)(point.x+0.5);
                  clipped_edges[((edges_counter*2)+1)]=
                              (int)(point.y+0.5);
                  edges_counter++;

                  clipped_edges[(edges_counter*2)]=
                             (int)(line.x_2+0.5);
                  clipped_edges[((edges_counter*2)+1)]=
                             (int)(line.y_2+0.5);
                  edges_counter++;
                  break;
              }
        }

         clipped_edges[0]=clipped_edges[((edges_counter*2)-2)];
         clipped_edges[1]=clipped_edges[((edges_counter*2)-1)];

         for(int count_5=0;count_5<(edges_counter*2);count_5++)
        edges[count_5]=0;

         number_of_edges=edges_counter;

         for(int count_6=0;count_6<(edges_counter*2);count_6++)
        edges[count_6]=clipped_edges[count_6];
     }

       setcolor(10);
     Polygon(number_of_edges,edges);

       delete edges;
       delete clipped_edges;
    }

 /*************************************************************************///----------------------------  check_line( )  --------------------------///*************************************************************************/constint check_line(const LineCoordinates line,const LineCoordinates edge)
    {
       int rule_number=0;
       int point_1=check_point(line,edge.x_1,edge.y_1);
       int point_2=check_point(line,edge.x_2,edge.y_2);

       if(point_1==1 && point_2==1)
      rule_number=1;

       elseif(point_1!=1 && point_2!=1)
      rule_number=2;

       elseif(point_1==1 && point_2!=1)
      rule_number=3;

       elseif(point_1!=1 && point_2==1)
      rule_number=4;

       return rule_number;
    }

 /*************************************************************************///----------------------------  check_point( )  -------------------------///*************************************************************************/constint check_point(const LineCoordinates lc,constfloat x,constfloat y)
    {
       float c=(((lc.x_2-lc.x_1)*(y-lc.y_1))-((lc.y_2-lc.y_1)*(x-lc.x_1)));

       if(c<=0)
      return 1;

       elsereturn 0;
    }

 /*************************************************************************///----------------------  get_intersection_point( )  --------------------///*************************************************************************/const PointCoordinates get_intersection_point(LineCoordinates lc1,
                            LineCoordinates lc2)
    {
       float x_min=lc1.x_1;
       float x_max=lc1.x_2;
       float y_min=lc1.y_1;
       float y_max=lc1.y_2;

       if(lc1.x_1==lc1.x_2)
      {
         if(lc2.y_2>=lc2.y_1 && lc2.y_2>y_max)
        y_max=lc2.y_2;

         elseif(lc2.y_1>lc2.y_2 && lc2.y_1>y_max)
        y_max=lc2.y_1;

         if(lc2.y_1<=lc2.y_2 && lc2.y_1<y_min)
        y_min=lc2.y_1;

         elseif(lc2.y_2<lc2.y_1 && lc2.y_2<y_min)
        y_min=lc2.y_2;
      }

       elseif(lc1.y_1==lc1.y_2)
      {
         if(lc2.x_2>=lc2.x_1 && lc2.x_2>x_max)
        x_max=lc2.x_2;

         elseif(lc2.x_2<lc2.x_1 && lc2.x_1>x_max)
        x_max=lc2.x_1;

         if(lc2.x_1<=lc2.x_2 && lc2.x_1<x_min)
        x_min=lc2.x_1;

         elseif(lc2.x_2<lc2.x_1 && lc2.x_2<x_min)
        x_min=lc2.x_2;
      }

       float x_mid;
       float y_mid;

       if(lc2.y_1>y_max)
      {
         while(lc2.y_1!=y_max)
        {
           x_mid=((lc2.x_1+lc2.x_2)/2);
           y_mid=((lc2.y_1+lc2.y_2)/2);

           if(y_mid>=y_max)
              {
             lc2.x_1=x_mid;
             lc2.y_1=y_mid;
              }

           else
              {
             lc2.x_2=x_mid;
             lc2.y_2=y_mid;
              }
        }
      }

       elseif(lc2.y_1<y_min)
      {
         while(lc2.y_1!=y_min)
        {
           x_mid=((lc2.x_1+lc2.x_2)/2);
           y_mid=((lc2.y_1+lc2.y_2)/2);

           if(y_mid<=y_min)
              {
             lc2.x_1=x_mid;
             lc2.y_1=y_mid;
              }

           else
              {
             lc2.x_2=x_mid;
             lc2.y_2=y_mid;
              }
        }
      }

       if(lc2.x_1>x_max)
      {
         while(lc2.x_1!=x_max)
        {
           x_mid=((lc2.x_1+lc2.x_2)/2);
           y_mid=((lc2.y_1+lc2.y_2)/2);

           if(x_mid>=x_max)
              {
             lc2.x_1=x_mid;
             lc2.y_1=y_mid;
              }

           else
              {
             lc2.x_2=x_mid;
             lc2.y_2=y_mid;
              }
        }
      }

       elseif(lc2.x_1<x_min)
      {
         while(lc2.x_1!=x_min)
        {
           x_mid=((lc2.x_1+lc2.x_2)/2);
           y_mid=((lc2.y_1+lc2.y_2)/2);

           if(x_mid<=x_min)
              {
             lc2.x_1=x_mid;
             lc2.y_1=y_mid;
              }

           else
              {
             lc2.x_2=x_mid;
             lc2.y_2=y_mid;
              }
        }
      }

       PointCoordinates ipt;

       ipt.x=lc2.x_1;
       ipt.y=lc2.y_1;

       return ipt;
    }


 /*************************************************************************///---------------------------  Rectangle( )  ----------------------------///*************************************************************************/void Rectangle(constint x_1,constint y_1,constint x_2,constint y_2)
    {
       Dashed_line(x_1,y_1,x_2,y_1,1);
       Dashed_line(x_2,y_1,x_2,y_2,1);
       Dashed_line(x_2,y_2,x_1,y_2,1);
       Dashed_line(x_1,y_2,x_1,y_1,1);
    }

 /*************************************************************************///-----------------------------  Polygon( )  ----------------------------///*************************************************************************/void Polygon(constint n,constint coordinates[])
    {
       if(n>=2)
      {
         Line(coordinates[0],coordinates[1],
                         coordinates[2],coordinates[3]);

         for(int count=1;count<(n-1);count++)
        Line(coordinates[(count*2)],coordinates[((count*2)+1)],
                        coordinates[((count+1)*2)],
                        coordinates[(((count+1)*2)+1)]);
      }
    }

 /*************************************************************************///--------------------------  Line( )  ------------------------///*************************************************************************/void Line(constint x_1,constint y_1,constint x_2,constint y_2)
    {
       int color=getcolor( );

       int x1=x_1;
       int y1=y_1;

       int x2=x_2;
       int y2=y_2;

       if(x_1>x_2)
      {
         x1=x_2;
         y1=y_2;

         x2=x_1;
         y2=y_1;
      }

       int dx=abs(x2-x1);
       int dy=abs(y2-y1);
       int inc_dec=((y2>=y1)?1:-1);

       if(dx>dy)
      {
         int two_dy=(2*dy);
         int two_dy_dx=(2*(dy-dx));
         int p=((2*dy)-dx);

         int x=x1;
         int y=y1;

         putpixel(x,y,color);

         while(x<x2)
        {
           x++;

           if(p<0)
              p+=two_dy;

           else
              {
             y+=inc_dec;
             p+=two_dy_dx;
              }

           putpixel(x,y,color);
        }
      }

       else
      {
         int two_dx=(2*dx);
         int two_dx_dy=(2*(dx-dy));
         int p=((2*dx)-dy);

         int x=x1;
         int y=y1;

         putpixel(x,y,color);

         while(y!=y2)
        {
           y+=inc_dec;

           if(p<0)
              p+=two_dx;

           else
              {
             x++;
             p+=two_dx_dy;
              }

           putpixel(x,y,color);
        }
      }
    }

 /*************************************************************************///---------------------------  Dashed_line( )  --------------------------///*************************************************************************/void Dashed_line(constint x_1,constint y_1,constint x_2,
                      constint y_2,constint line_type)
    {
       int count=0;
       int color=getcolor( );

       int x1=x_1;
       int y1=y_1;

       int x2=x_2;
       int y2=y_2;

       if(x_1>x_2)
      {
         x1=x_2;
         y1=y_2;

         x2=x_1;
         y2=y_1;
      }

       int dx=abs(x2-x1);
       int dy=abs(y2-y1);
       int inc_dec=((y2>=y1)?1:-1);

       if(dx>dy)
      {
         int two_dy=(2*dy);
         int two_dy_dx=(2*(dy-dx));
         int p=((2*dy)-dx);

         int x=x1;
         int y=y1;

         putpixel(x,y,color);

         while(x<x2)
        {
           x++;

           if(p<0)
              p+=two_dy;

           else
              {
             y+=inc_dec;
             p+=two_dy_dx;
              }

           if((count%2)!=0 && line_type==0)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           elseif((count%5)!=4 && line_type==1)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           elseif((count%10)!=8 && (count%10)!=9 && line_type==2)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           elseif((count%20)!=18 && (count%20)!=19 && line_type==3)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           elseif((count%12)!=7 && (count%12)!=8 &&
                (count%12)!=10 && (count%12)!=11 && line_type==4)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           count++;
        }
      }

       else
      {
         int two_dx=(2*dx);
         int two_dx_dy=(2*(dx-dy));
         int p=((2*dx)-dy);

         int x=x1;
         int y=y1;

         putpixel(x,y,color);

         while(y!=y2)
        {
           y+=inc_dec;

           if(p<0)
              p+=two_dx;

           else
              {
             x++;
             p+=two_dx_dy;
              }

           if((count%2)!=0 && line_type==0)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           elseif((count%5)!=4 && line_type==1)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           elseif((count%10)!=8 && (count%10)!=9 && line_type==2)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           elseif((count%20)!=18 && (count%20)!=19 && line_type==3)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           elseif((count%12)!=7 && (count%12)!=8 &&
                (count%12)!=10 && (count%12)!=11 && line_type==4)
              putpixel(x,y,color);

           count++;
        }
      }
    }

 /*************************************************************************///--------------------------  show_screen( )  ---------------------------///*************************************************************************/void show_screen( )
    {
       setfillstyle(1,1);
     bar(180,26,460,38);

       settextstyle(0,0,1);
     setcolor(15);
       outtextxy(5,5,"******************************************************************************");
       outtextxy(5,17,"*-**************************************************************************-*");
       outtextxy(5,29,"*--------------------                                     -------------------*");
       outtextxy(5,41,"*-**************************************************************************-*");
       outtextxy(5,53,"*-**************************************************************************-*");

     setcolor(11);
       outtextxy(190,29,"Window-to-Viewport Transformation");

     setcolor(15);

       for(int count=0;count<=30;count++)
          outtextxy(5,(65+(count*12)),"*-*                                                                        *-*");

       outtextxy(5,438,"*-**************************************************************************-*");
       outtextxy(5,450,"*----------                                                          --------*");
       outtextxy(5,462,"******************************************************************************");

     setcolor(12);
       outtextxy(90,450,"  Press 'T' to see the Window-to-Viewport Transformation.  ");
    }
  
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