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help : java.util.concurrent.*;

  Asked By: Emily    Date: Jul 25    Category: Java    Views: 1414

dose nay one know how to use "java.util.concurrent.*;" in jdk1.4.1.
while it has been introduced by jdk1.5.



3 Answers Found

Answer #1    Answered By: Bonnie Hughes     Answered On: Jul 25

In addition to many other useful concurrency building blocks, Doug Lea's util.concurrent package contains high-performance, thread-safe implementations for workhorse collection types List and Map. This month, Brian Goetz shows you how many concurrent programs will benefit from simply replacing Hashtable or synchronizedMap with ConcurrentHashMap.
The first associative collection class to appear in the java  class library was Hashtable, which was part of JDK 1.0. Hashtable provided an easy-to-use, thread-safe, associative map capability, and it was certainly convenient. However, the thread-safety came at a price -- all methods of Hashtable were synchronized. At that time, uncontended synchronization had a measurable performance cost. The successor to Hashtable, HashMap, which appeared as part of the Collections framework in JDK 1.2, addressed thread-safety by providing an unsynchronized base class and a synchronized wrapper, Collections.synchronizedMap. Separating the base functionality from the thread-safety Collections.synchronizedMap allowed users who needed synchronization to have it, but users who didn't need it didn't have to pay for it.
The simple approach to synchronization taken by both Hashtable and synchronizedMap -- synchronizing each method on the Hashtable or the synchronized Map wrapper object -- has two principal deficiencies. It is an impediment to scalability, because only one thread can access the hash table at a time. At the same time, it is insufficient to provide true thread safety, in that many common compound operations still require additional synchronization. While simple operations such as get() and put() can complete safely without additional synchronization, there are several common sequences of operations, such as iteration or put-if-absent, which still require external synchronization to avoid data races.
Conditional thread-safety
The synchronized collections wrappers, synchronizedMap and synchronizedList, are sometimes called conditionally thread-safe -- all individual operations are thread-safe, but sequences of operations where the control flow depends on the results of previous operations may be subject to data races. The first snippet in Listing 1 shows the common put-if-absent idiom -- if an entry does not already exist in the Map, add it. Unfortunately, as written, it is possible for another thread to insert a value with the same key between the time the containsKey() method returns and the time the put() method is called. If you want to ensure exactly-once insertion, you need to wrap the pair of statements with a synchronized block that synchronizes on the Map m.
The other examples in Listing 1 deal with iteration. In the first example, the results of List.size() could become invalid during the execution of the loop, because another thread could delete items from the list. If the timing was unlucky, and an item was deleted by another thread just after entering the last iteration of the loop, List.get() will return null, and doSomething() will likely throw a NullPointerException. What can you do to avoid this? If another thread may be accessing a List while you are iterating through it, you must lock the entire List while you are iterating by wrapping it with a synchronized block, synchronizing on the List l. This addresses the data race, but has further costs for concurrency, since locking the entire List while iterating could block other threads from accessing the list for a long time.
The Collections framework introduced iterators for traversing a list or other collection, which optimizes the process of iterating through the elements in a collection. However, the iterators implemented in the java.util Collections classes are fail-fast, which means that if one thread changes a collection while another thread is traversing it through an Iterator, the next Iterator.hasNext() or Iterator.next() call will throw ConcurrentModificationException. Just as with the previous example, if you want to prevent ConcurrentModificationException, you must lock the entire List while you are iterating by wrapping it with a synchronized block that synchronizes on the List l. (Alternatively, you can invoke List.toArray() and iterate on the array without synchronization, but this could be expensive if the list is large.)

Listing 1. Common race conditions in synchronized maps

Map m = Collections.synchronizedMap(new HashMap());
List l = Collections.synchronizedList(new ArrayList());

// put-if-absent idiom -- contains a race condition
// may require external synchronization
if (!map.containsKey(key))
map.put(key, value);

// ad-hoc iteration -- contains race conditions
// may require external synchronization
for (int i=0; i<list.size(); i++) {

// normal iteration -- can throw ConcurrentModificationException
// may require external synchronization
for (Iterator i=list.iterator(); i.hasNext(); )

False sense of confidence
The conditional thread safety provided by synchronizedList and synchronizedMap present a hidden hazard -- developers assume that because these collections are synchronized, they are fully thread-safe, and they neglect to synchronize compound operations properly. The result is that while these programs appear to work under light load, under heavy load they may start throwing NullPointerException or ConcurrentModificationException.

Answer #2    Answered By: Percy Morgan     Answered On: Jul 25

I think you should use other available packages compatible with jdk1.4 for concurrency instead of it, or move to jdk1.5.
That package is for jdk1.5 or higher.

Answer #3    Answered By: Aaron Kennedy     Answered On: Jul 25

As I told you before, developers of "java.util.concurrent.*" package
in jdk1.5 has also provide a back-port compatible with jdk1.4.
You can visit this address and download the jar file:

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